What Is an Ostomy?

Ostomy is the name of surgery for the making of a hole in the belly wall, made to provide a new passage of excretion (urine and stool) to a patient. The stoma (hole created during the operation) is always on the abdomen; however, the exact location depends on the type of surgery. Sometimes, it is on the lower right, and in a few kinds, it appears on the left side of the abdomen. Well, the opening (stoma) in the belly is a new route of discharging the solid and liquid (urine and stool) waste from the body.

We shall discuss the reasons for an ostomy in this article. Moreover, you will read the risks and complications attached to this operation. Merely, when you go through an ostomy operation, your rectum and anus do not provide the natural path for discharging. An ostomate discharges stool (solid waste) and liquid (urine) through the stoma.

When it comes to the appearance of the stoma, it has no specific shape and size; however, doctors have mentioned some dimensions, colors, and shape of a normal stoma. A normal opening is a round or oval, red or dark pink, maroon in a few cases, and three to four mm. It is a painful opening, it cuts your internal organs (a small part of bowel, rectum, ileum, or colon) and brings it to the artificial passage of excretion. However, the pain will diminish after three or four weeks of the operation. Once your internal stitches and organs get healed, you will get normal and feel no pain.

Some Reasons Due to Which You Need Ostomy

Well, it is quite understandable that when you have a severe infection or disease in your intestinal and digestive portion, you need stoma care. However, there are several disorders and malfunctions in the bowel, colon, rectum, and ileum due to which you need ostomy or an artificial passage for excreting the stool or urine. Moreover, doctors remove an internal organ that is somehow connected to the digestive system, then you need a stoma in your life.

However, some common reasons and diseases that can lead you to live an ostomy life are:

  • Cancer in your digestive system, rectum, bladder, or intestines.
  • An injury in the bladder, intestines, rectum, or bowel (during a fight or accident).
  • An Ulcerative Colitis.
  • Bowel disorder.
  • Blockage in the bowel.
  • Blockage in colon or ileum.
  • An infection in the small intestine, large intestine, bowel, or bladder.
  • Side effects of cancer radiation treatment. 
  • Inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Irregular or uncontrollable bowel movement. 

Surgery Procedure of Ostomy

This is an incision of internal organs. Thus, this is a very painful operation. Therefore, before surgery, a nurse will give you anesthesia. Thus, you will not feel any pain, cuts, or procedure. Then, the professional team will mark the spot for the making of the stoma (the nurse finds the exact location for the opening before the surgery starts, usually in the pre-operative session).

The surgery starts, and the doctor removes the internal infection from the opening. After that, he brings a small portion of the internal organ (a small part of the bowel, rectum, ileum, or colon) outside to the abdomen. This half part of ileum or colon connects to the stoma for the excretion cause. The surgeon stitches your internal organ or intestine; sometimes your stoma needs stitching too. Thus, it depends on the operation and your stoma is ready. You will take at least four weeks to get recovered from the pain and stitches. Once you are fine you can get back to your previous activities.

Complications You Can Face After the Ostomy Surgery

In a few cases, an ostomy patient might face some complications, even after the operation, they could be:

  • Irritation in and around the stoma.
  • Stoma bleeding.
  • Infection in stoma or an internal organ.
  • Blockage in stoma or intestines.